Kubernetes is a large open-source project with a lot of code and functionality. Kubernetes was created by Google, but after joining the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF), it quickly rose to the top of the container-based application market.
It is a platform that orchestrates the deployment, scaling, and management of container-based applications in a single statement. You’ve probably heard about Kubernetes and maybe even tried it out in a side project or at work. However, understanding Kubernetes, how to utilize it successfully, and what best practices to follow necessitates much more.
We’ll lay the groundwork for utilizing Kubernetes to its maximum capacity in this section. We’ll start by delving into what Kubernetes is, what it isn’t, and what container orchestration entails.
Table of Contents
What is Kubernetes?
Kubernetes is a platform with a large number of services and features that are constantly expanding. Its main feature is the ability to schedule workloads in containers throughout your infrastructure, but that’s not all. Here are some of the other features Kubernetes has to offer,
- Installation of storage systems
- Distributing secrets
- Examining the application’s health
- Replicating instances of applications
- Using autoscaling for horizontal pods
- Naming and discovering
- Balancing loads
- Updates on a regular basis
- Monitoring the resources
- Getting access to and consuming logs
- Application debugging
- Authentication and authorisation services
Following is not Kubernetes
Kubernetes is a container orchestration system, not a platform as a service (PaaS). It leaves many of the critical parts of your desired system up to you or other Kubernetes-based systems like Deis, OpenShift, and Eldarion. As an example,
- It does not require any specific application frameworks or types of applications.
- It does not include the use of any specific programming language.
- It does not include databases and message queues.
- It does not differentiate between apps and services.
- It does not have click-to-deploy service marketplace.
- It allows users to choose their own logging, monitoring, and alerting systems.
Understanding container orchestration
Kubernetes is primarily responsible for container orchestration. This entails ensuring that all containers that perform different workloads are scheduled to operate on physical or virtual machines.
The containers must be packed efficiently and adhere to the deployment environment’s and cluster configuration’s requirements. Kubernetes must also keep an eye on all operating containers and replace any that are dead, unresponsive, or otherwise unhealthy.
Containers, virtual machines, and physical machines
Hardware is where it all begins and ends. You’ll need to provision some real hardware to run your workloads. This includes physical computers with specific compute capabilities (CPUs or cores), memory, and local persistent storage (spinning disks or SSDs).
You’ll also need some shared persistent storage and networking to connect all of these devices so they can find and communicate with one another. At this stage, you have the option of running numerous virtual machines on the physical hardware or remaining bare-metal (no virtual machines).
Kubernetes can be installed on either a bare-metal (hardware) cluster or a virtual machine cluster. In turn, Kubernetes can choreograph the containers it controls on bare-metal or virtual computers. A Kubernetes cluster can theoretically be made up of both bare-metal and virtual machines, however, this isn’t particularly popular.
Containers have numerous advantages.
Containers represent a significant shift in how large, complex software systems are developed and operated. Here are a few of the advantages over more standard models,
- Development and deployment of agile applications
- Continuous development, integration, and deployment
- Consistency in the environment during development, testing, and production
- Portability of cloud and operating system distribution
- Management based on the application
- Microservices that are loosely connected, distributed, elastic, and emancipated
- Isolation of resources
- Utilization of resources
Containers in the cloud
Containers are good for packaging microservices since they are lightweight and don’t have as much overhead as virtual machines when delivering several microservices. It is perfect for cloud deployment since assigning a full virtual machine for each microservice would be prohibitively expensive.
Container-hosting services are now available from all major cloud providers, including Amazon AWS, Google’s GCP, Microsoft’s Azure, and even Alibaba Cloud. Kubernetes has always been at the heart of Google’s GKE. AWS ECS is a self-contained orchestration system. Apache Mesos was used to power Microsoft Azure’s container service.
Kubernetes is a container orchestration system that can be deployed on any cloud platform, although it wasn’t fully connected with other services until recently. Kubernetes has received direct support from all cloud providers. AKS was launched by Microsoft, EKS was published by AWS, and Alibaba Cloud began work on a Kubernetes controller manager to smoothly integrate it.